The Blog

Bolman and Deal’s Reframing Model

Bolman and Deal’s Reframing Model

In addition to Bolman and Deal’s (2013) reframing model as a way of making sense of organizations, you may tend to naturally observe an organization through your own intuitive frame. The key, as an effective manager, is to be aware of how you tend to frame what happens within an organization and to utilize additional tools for understanding the organization from various perspectives. When combining insights from additional frames, a more detailed picture of the organization emerges.

For this Discussion, you will take the “Leadership Self-Assessment on Reframing Organizations” questionnaire, through the link provided to you in your resources, to determine what your natural leadership style is—in terms of the four frames.

Note: When you take the assessment, you will immediately be provided a report on your leadership style along with information to interpret what that style means.

See another question tackled by our nursing writing experts on individual needs and three societal needs and explain the role of the criminal justice professional

Describe your leadership style in respect to reframing and share one strength and one possible limitation of your natural leadership preference. Also, provide two suggestions for developing or applying these frames to your learning.

 

In addition to Bolman and Deal’s (2013) reframing model as a way of making sense of organizations, you may tend to naturally observe an organization through your own intuitive frame. The key, as an effective manager, is to be aware of how you tend to frame what happens within an organization and to utilize additional tools for understanding the organization from various perspectives. When combining insights from additional frames, a more detailed picture of the organization emerges.

For this Discussion, you will take the “Leadership Self-Assessment on Reframing Organizations” questionnaire, through the link provided to you in your resources, to determine what your natural leadership style is—in terms of the four frames.

Note: When you take the assessment, you will immediately be provided a report on your leadership style along with information to interpret what that style means.

Describe your leadership style in respect to reframing and share one strength and one possible limitation of your natural leadership preference. Also, provide two suggestions for developing or applying these frames to your learning.

Reframing Organizations An updated online Instructor’s Guide with Your Leadership Orientations Self-Assessment is available at www.wiley.com/college/bolman Th e Instructor’s Guide includes: • Chapter-by-chapter notes and teaching suggestions • Sample syllabi and support materials • Case suggestions • Video suggestions • Your Leadership Orientations Self-Assessment Reframing Organizations Artistry, Choice, and Leadership Lee G. Bolman • Terrence E. Deal 5th EDITION Cover design by Adrian Morgan Cover art © Shutterstock (rf) Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by Jossey-Bass A Wiley Brand One Montgomery Street, Suite 1200, San Francisco, CA 94104-4594—www.josseybass.com No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the Web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Page 527 is a continuation of the copyright page. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best eff orts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifi cally disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fi tness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. Th e advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profi t or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. Readers should be aware that Internet Web sites off ered as citations and/or sources for further information may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it is read. Jossey-Bass books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Jossey-Bass directly call our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-956-7739, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3986, or fax 317-572-4002. Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included in e-books or in print-ondemand. If this book refers to media such as a CD or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material at http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products, visit www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bolman, Lee G. Reframing organizations : artistry, choice, and leadership / Lee G. Bolman, Terrence E. Deal. —Fift h edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-118-55738-9 (cloth); ISBN 978-1-118-57333-4 (pbk.); ISBN 978-1-118-57323-5 (pdf); ISBN 978-1-118-57331-0 (epub) 1. Management. 2. Organizational behavior. 3. Leadership. I. Deal, Terrence E. II. Title. HD31.B6135 2013 658.4’063—dc23 2013016244 Printed in the United States of America fifth edition HB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 PB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 v CONTENTS Preface vii Acknowledgments xiii PART ONE Making Sense of Organizations 1 1 Introduction: The Power of Reframing 3 2 Simple Ideas, Complex Organizations 23 PART TWO The Structural Frame 41 3 Getting Organized 43 4 Structure and Restructuring 69 5 Organizing Groups and Teams 95 PART THREE The Human Resource Frame 113 6 People and Organizations 115 7 Improving Human Resource Management 137 8 Interpersonal and Group Dynamics 161 vi Contents PART FOUR The Political Frame 183 9 Power, Conflict, and Coalition 185 10 The Manager as Politician 205 11 Organizations as Political Arenas and Political Agents 225 PART FIVE The Symbolic Frame 243 12 Organizational Symbols and Culture 245 13 Culture in Action 271 14 Organization as Theater 285 PART SIX Improving Leadership Practice 303 15 Integrating Frames for Effective Practice 305 16 Reframing in Action: Opportunities and Perils 323 17 Reframing Leadership 337 18 Reframing Change in Organizations 371 19 Reframing Ethics and Spirit 393 20 Bringing It All Together: Change and Leadership in Action 407 21 Epilogue: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership 431 Appendix: Th e Best of Organizational Studies 435 Notes 439 Bibliography 441 Th e Authors 483 Name Index 485 Subject Index 497 vii P R E F A C E This is the sixth release of a work that began in 1984 as Modern Approaches to Understanding and Managing Organizations and became Reframing Organizations in 1991 . We ’re grateful to readers around the world who have told us that our books gave them ideas that make a diff erence—at work and elsewhere in their lives. It is again time for an update, and we ’re gratifi ed to be back by popular demand. Like everything else, organizations and their leadership challenges continue to change rapidly, and both scholars and leaders are running hard to keep up. Th is edition tries to capture the current frontiers of both knowledge and art. Th e four-frame model, with its view of organizations as factories, families, jungles, and temples, remains the book ’s conceptual heart. But we have incorporated new research and revised our case examples extensively to keep up with the latest developments. We have updated a feature we inaugurated in the third edition: “greatest hits in organization studies.” Th ese feature pithy summaries of key ideas from the some of the most infl uential works in the scholarly literature (as indicated by a citation analysis, described in the Appendix at the end of the book). As a counterpoint to the scholarly works, we have also included occasional summaries of recent management bestsellers. Scholarly and professional literature oft en run on separate tracks, but the two streams together provide a fuller picture than either alone, and we have tried to capture the best of both in our work. Life in organizations has produced many new examples, and there is new material throughout the book. At the same time, we worked zealously to minimize bloat by tracking down and expunging every redundant sentence, marginal concept, or extraneous example. Th e result is a volume that ’s a bit slimmer than viii Preface its predecessor. We ’ve also tried to keep it fun. Collective life is an endless source of examples as entertaining as they are instructive, and we ’ve sprinkled them throughout the text. We apologize to anyone who fi nds that an old favorite fell to the cutting-room fl oor, but we hope readers will fi nd the book an even clearer and more effi cient read. As always, our primary audience is managers and leaders. We have tried to answer the question, What do we know about organizations and leadership that is genuinely relevant and useful to practitioners as well as scholars? We have worked to present a large, complex body of theory, research, and practice as clearly and simply as possible. We tried to avoid watering it down or presenting simplistic views of how to solve managerial problems. Our goal is to off er not solutions but powerful and provocative ways of thinking about opportunities and pitfalls. We continue to focus on both management and leadership. Leading and managing are diff erent, but they ’re equally important. Th e diff erence is nicely summarized in an aphorism from Bennis and Nanus: “Managers do things right. Leaders do the right thing.” If an organization is overmanaged but underled, it eventually loses any sense of spirit or purpose. A poorly managed organization with a strong, charismatic leader may soar briefl y—only to crash shortly thereaft er. Malpractice can be as damaging and unethical for managers and leaders as for physicians. Myopic managers or overzealous leaders usually harm more than just themselves. Th e challenges of today ’s organizations require the objective perspective of managers as well as the brilliant fl ashes of creativity that wise leadership provides. We need more people in managerial roles who can fi nd simplicity and order amid organizational confusion and chaos. We need versatile and fl exible leaders who are artists as well as analysts, who can reframe experience to discover new issues and possibilities. We need managers who love their work, their organizations, and the people whose lives they aff ect. We need leaders and managers who appreciate management as a moral and ethical undertaking. We need leaders who combine hard-headed realism with passionate commitment to larger values and purposes. We hope to encourage and nurture such qualities and possibilities. As in the past, we have tried to produce a clear and readable synthesis and integration of the fi eld ’s major theoretical traditions. We concentrate mainly on organization theory ’s implications for practice. We draw on examples from every sector and around the globe. Historically, organization studies have been divided into several intellectual camps, oft en isolated from one another. Works that seek to give a comprehensive overview of organization theory and research oft en drown Preface ix in social science jargon and abstraction and have little to say to practitioners. We try to fi nd a balance between misleading oversimplifi cation and mind-boggling complexity. Th e bulk of work in organization theory has focused on the private or public or nonprofi t sector, but not all three. We think this is a mistake. Managers need to understand similarities and diff erences among all types of organizations. All three sectors increasingly interpenetrate one another. Public administrators who regulate airlines, nuclear power plants, or pharmaceutical companies face the problem of “indirect management” every day. Th ey struggle to infl uence the behavior of organizations over which they have very limited authority. Private fi rms need to manage relationships with multiple levels of government. Th e situation is even more complicated for managers in multinational companies coping with the subtleties of governments with very diff erent systems and traditions. Around the world, voluntary and nongovernment organizations partner with business and government to address major social and economic challenges. Across sectors and cultures, managers oft en harbor narrow, stereotypic conceptions of one another that impede eff ectiveness on all sides. We need common ground and a shared understanding that can help strengthen organizations in every sector. Th e dialogue between public and private, domestic and multinational organizations has become increasingly important. Because of their generic application, the four frames off er an ecumenical language for the exchange. Our work with a variety of organizations around the world has continually reinforced our confi dence that the frames are relevant everywhere. Political and symbolic issues, for example, are universally important, even though the specifi cs vary greatly from one country or culture to another. Th e idea of reframing continues to be a central theme. Th roughout the book, we show how the same situation can be viewed in at least four ways. In Part Six, we include a series of chapters on reframing critical organizational issues such as leadership, change, and ethics. Two chapters are specifi cally devoted to reframing real-life situations. We also continue to emphasize artistry. Overemphasizing the rational and technical side of an organization oft en contributes to its decline or demise. Our counterbalance emphasizes the importance of art in both management and leadership. Artistry is neither exact nor precise; the artist interprets experience, expressing it in forms that can be felt, understood, and appreciated. Art fosters emotion, subtlety, and ambiguity. An artist represents the world to give us a deeper x Preface understanding of what is and what might be. In modern organizations, quality, commitment, and creativity are highly valued but oft en hard to fi nd. Th ey can be developed and encouraged by leaders or managers who embrace the expressive side of their work. OUTLINE OF THE BOOK Th e fi rst part of the book, “Making Sense of Organizations,” tackles a perplexing question about management: Why is it that smart people so oft en do dumb things? Chapter One, “Th e Power of Reframing,” explains why: Managers oft en misread situations. Th ey have not learned how to use multiple lenses to get a better sense of what they ’re up against and what they might do. Chapter Two, “Simple Ideas, Complex Organizations,” uses famous cases (such as 9/11) to show how managers’ everyday thinking and theories can lead to catastrophe. We explain basic factors that make organizational life complicated, ambiguous, and unpredictable; discuss common fallacies in managerial thinking; and spell out criteria for more eff ective approaches to diagnosis and action. Part Two, “Th e Structural Frame,” explores the key role that social architecture plays in the functioning of organizations. Chapter Th ree, “Getting Organized,” describes basic issues that managers must consider in designing structure to fi t an organization ’s goals, tasks, and context. It demonstrates why organizations— from Amazon to McDonald ’s to Harvard University—need diff erent structures in order to be eff ective in their unique environments. Chapter Four, “Structure and Restructuring,” explains major structural pathologies and pitfalls. It presents guidelines for aligning structures to situations, along with cases illustrating successful structural change. Chapter Five, “Organizing Groups and Teams,” shows that structure is a key to high-performing teams. Part Th ree, “Th e Human Resource Frame,” explores the properties of both people and organizations, and what happens when the two intersect. Chapter Six, “People and Organizations,” focuses on the relationship between organizations and human nature. It shows how a manager ’s practices and assumptions about people can lead either to alienation and hostility or to commitment and high motivation. It contrasts two strategies for achieving eff ectiveness: “lean and mean,” or investing in people. Chapter Seven, “Improving Human Resource Management,” is an overview of practices that build a more motivated and committed workforce—including participative management, job enrichment, self-managing Preface xi workgroups, management of diversity, and organization development. Chapter Eight, “Interpersonal and Group Dynamics,” presents an example of interpersonal confl ict to illustrate how managers can enhance or undermine relationships. It also discusses how group members can increase their eff ectiveness by attending to group process, including informal norms and roles, interpersonal confl ict, leadership, and decision making. Part Four, “Th e Political Frame,” views organizations as arenas. Individuals and groups compete to achieve their parochial interests in a world of confl icting viewpoints, scarce resources, and struggles for power. Chapter Nine, “Power, Confl ict, and Coalition,” analyzes the tragic loss of the space shuttles Columbia and Challenger , illustrating the infl uence of political dynamics in decision making. It shows how scarcity and diversity lead to confl ict, bargaining, and games of power; the chapter also distinguishes constructive and destructive political dynamics. Chapter Ten, “Th e Manager as Politician,” uses leadership examples from an NGO in India and a soft ware development eff ort at Microsoft to illustrate basic skills of the constructive politician: diagnosing political realities, setting agendas, building networks, negotiating, and making choices that are both eff ective and ethical. Chapter Eleven, “Organizations as Political Arenas and Political Agents,” highlights organizations as both arenas for political contests and political actors infl uencing broader social, political, and economic trends. Case examples such as Wal-Mart and Ross Johnson explore political dynamics both inside and outside organizations. Part Five explores the symbolic frame. Chapter Twelve, “Organizational Symbols and Culture,” spells out basic symbolic elements in organizations: myths, heroes, metaphors, stories, humor, play, rituals, and ceremonies. It defi nes organizational culture and shows its central role in shaping performance. Th e power of symbol and culture is illustrated in cases as diverse as the U.S. Congress, Nordstrom department stores, the Air Force, Zappos, and an odd horse race in Italy. Chapter Th irteen, “Culture in Action,” uses the case of a computer development team to show what leaders and group members can do collectively to build a culture that bonds people in pursuit of a shared mission. Initiation rituals, specialized language, group stories, humor and play, and ceremonies all combine to transform diverse individuals into a cohesive team with purpose, spirit, and soul. Chapter Fourteen, “Organization as Th eater,” draws on dramaturgical and institutional theory to reveal how organizational structures, activities, and events serve as secular dramas, expressing our fears and joys, arousing our emotions, kindling xii Preface our spirit, and anchoring our sense of meaning. It also shows how organizational structures and processes—such as planning, evaluation, and decision making— are oft en more important for what they express than for what they accomplish. Part Six, “Improving Leadership Practice,” focuses on the implications of the frames for central issues in managerial practice, including leadership, change, and ethics. Chapter Fift een, “Integrating Frames for Eff ective Practice,” shows how managers can blend the frames to improve their eff ectiveness. It looks at organizations as multiple realities and gives guidelines for aligning frames with situations. Chapter Sixteen, “Reframing in Action,” presents four scenarios, or scripts, derived from the frames. It applies the scenarios to the harrowing experience of a young manager whose fi rst day in a new job turns out to be far more challenging than she expected. Th e discussion illustrates how leaders can expand their options and enhance their eff ectiveness by considering alternative approaches. Chapter Seventeen, “Reframing Leadership,” discusses limitations in traditional views of leadership and proposes a more comprehensive view of how leadership works in organizations. It summarizes and critiques current knowledge on the characteristics of leaders, including the relationship of leadership to culture and gender. It shows how frames generate distinctive images of eff ective leaders as architects, servants, advocates, and prophets. Chapter Eighteen, “Reframing Change in Organizations,” describes four fundamental issues that arise in any change eff ort: individual needs and skills, structural realignment, political confl ict, and existential loss. It uses cases of successful and unsuccessful change to document key strategies, such as training, realigning, creating arenas, and using symbol and ceremony. Chapter Nineteen, “Reframing Ethics and Spirit,” discusses four ethical mandates that emerge from the frames: excellence, caring, justice, and faith. It argues that leaders can build more ethical organizations through gift s of authorship, love, power, and signifi cance. Chapter Twenty, “Bringing It All Together,” is an integrative treatment of the reframing process. It takes a troubled school administrator through a weekend of refl ection on critical diffi culties he faces. Th e chapter shows how reframing can help managers move from feeling confused and stuck to discovering a renewed sense of clarity and confi dence. Th e Epilogue (Chapter Twenty-One) describes strategies and characteristics needed in future leaders. It explains why they will need an artistic combination of conceptual fl exibility and commitment to core values. Eff orts to prepare future leaders have to focus as much on spiritual as on intellectual development. xiii A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S We noted in our fi rst edition, “Book writing oft en feels like a lonely process, even when an odd couple is doing the writing.” Th is odd couple keeps getting older (both over seventy) and, some would say, even odder and grumpier. Yet the process seems less lonely because of our close friendship and our contact with many other colleagues and friends. Th e best thing about teaching is that you learn so much from your students. Students at Harvard, Vanderbilt, the University of Missouri–Kansas City, the University of La Verne, and the University of Southern California have given us invaluable criticism, challenge, and support over the years. We ’re also grateful to the many readers who have responded to our invitation to write and ask questions or share comments. Th ey have helped us write a better book. (Th e invitation is still open—our contact information is in “Th e Authors.”) We wish we could personally thank all of the leaders and managers who helped us learn in seminars, workshops, and consultations. Their knowledge and wisdom are the foundation and touchstone for our work. We would like to thank all the colleagues and readers in the United States and around the world who have off ered valuable comments and suggestions, but the list is very long and our memories keep getting shorter. Bob Marx, of the University of Massachusetts, deserves special mention as a charter member of the frames family. Bob ’s interest in the frames, creativity in developing teaching designs, and xiv Acknowledgments eye for video material have aided our thinking and teaching immensely. Elena Granell de Aldaz of the Institute for Advanced Study of Management in Caracas collaborated with us on developing a Spanish-language adaptation of Reframing Organizations as well as on a more recent project that studied frame orientations among managers in Venezuela. We are proud to consider her a valued colleague and wonderful friend. Captain Gary Deal, USN; Maj. Kevin Reed, USAF; Dr. Peter Minich, a transplant surgeon; and Jan and Ron Haynes of FzioMed all provided valuable case material. Terry Dunn of JE Dunn in Kansas City has been both a friend and an inspiring model of values-based leadership. Th e late Peter Frost of the University of British Columbia continues to inspire our work. Peter Vaill of the Antioch Graduate School; Kent Peterson, University of Wisconsin at Madison; both Sharon Conley and Patrick Faverty, University of California at Santa Barbara; and Roy Williams are continuing sources of ideas and support. A number of individuals, including many friends and colleagues at the Organizational Behavior Teaching Conference, have given us helpful ideas and suggestions. We apologize for any omissions, but we want to thank Anke Arnaud, Carole K. Barnett, Max Elden, Kent Fairfi eld, Ellen Harris, Olivier Hermanus, Jim Hodge, Earlene Holland, Scott Johnson, Mark Kriger, Hyoungbae Lee, Larry Levine, Mark Maier, Magid Mazen, Th omas P. Nydegger, Dave O ’Connell, Lynda St. Clair, Mabel Tinjacá, Susan Twombly, and Pat Villeneuve. We only wish we had succeeded in implementing all the wonderful ideas we received from these and other colleagues. Lee is grateful to all his Bloch School colleagues, and particularly to Nancy Day, Pam Dobies, Dave Donnelly, Dick Heimovics, Bob Herman, Doranne Hudson, Jae Jung, Tusha Kimber, Sandra Kruse-Smith, Rong Ma, Brent Never, Roger Pick, Stephen Pruitt, David Renz, Will Self, Marilyn Taylor, and Bob Waris. Terry’s colleagues Carl Cohn, Stu Gothald, and Gib Hentschke of the University of Southern California have off ered both intellectual stimulation and moral support. Terry ’s recent (2013) team-teaching venture with President Devorah Lieberman and Prof. Jack Meek of the University of La Verne showed what ’s possible when conventional boundaries are trespassed in a class of aspiring undergraduate leaders. Th is experience led to the founding of the Terrence E. Deal Leadership Institute. Others to whom our debt is particularly clear are Chris Argyris, Sam Bacharach, Cliff Baden, Margaret Benefi el, Estella Bensimon, Bob Birnbaum, Barbara Bunker, Tom Burks, Ellen Castro, Carlos Cortés, Linton Deck, Dave Fuller, Jim Honan, Tom Johnson, Bob Kegan, James March, Grady McGonagill, Judy McLaughlin, John Meyer, Kevin Nichols, Harrison Owen, Regina Pacheco, Acknowledgments xv Donna Redman, Peggy Redman, Michael Sales, Dick Scott, Joan Vydra, Karl Weick, Roy Williams, and Joe Zolner. Th anks again to Dave Brown, Phil Mirvis, Barry Oshry, Tim Hall, Bill Kahn, and Todd Jick of the Brookline Circle, now in its fourth decade of searching for joy and meaning in lives devoted to the study of organizations. We wrapped up the manuscript in a return visit to the Ritz-Carlton in Phoenix. As always, the staff there made us feel more than welcome and exemplifi ed the Ritz-Carlton tradition of superlative service. Th anks to Grant Dipman, Jean Hengst, Sharon Krull, Joshua Leveque, Rosa Melgoza, Marta Ortiz, Jean Wright, and their colleagues. Outside the United States, we are grateful to Poul Erik Mouritzen in Denmark; Rolf Kaelin, Cüno Pumpin, and Peter Weisman in Switzerland; Ilpo Linko in Finland; Tom Case in Brazil; Einar Plyhn and Haakon Gran in Norway; Peter Normark and Dag Bjorkegren in Sweden; Ching-Shiun Chung in Taiwan; Helen Gluzdakova and Anastasia Vitkovskaya in Russia; and H.R.H. Prince Philipp von und zu Lichtenstein. Closer to home, Lee also owes more than he can say to Bruce Kay, whose genial and unfl appable approach to work, coupled with high levels of organization and follow-through, have all had a wonderfully positive impact since he took on the challenge of bringing a

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!