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COVID 19 Changed the Way of Engineering Teaching

COVID 19 Changed the Way of Engineering Teaching

How COVID 19 Changed the Way of Engineering Teaching in UK UniversitiesBy: Name Course Name Professor’s Name University name Department City, State 15th February 2021 Word-count: 1846 Table of Contents 1. Introduction 3 1.1. Evolution of British engineering in the UK 3 1.2. Overview of Engineering History in the UK 3 1.3. The promotion of Engineering teaching through industrialists in the UK 4 1.4. Mechanical Engineering Education evolution in the UK 5 1.5 Technischen Hochschulen in the UK 5 1.6. Present situation and future 5 2. Literature Review 6 2.1. Engineering: Origin and implementation of term 6 2.2. Organised and Formal development of UK Engineering 6 2.3. The Engineering Gems of UK 6 3.1. STEM education policy and the impacts of COVID-19 on engineering education in the UK 7 References 8 1. Introduction 1.1. Evolution of British engineering in the UK There is sufficient proof that British engineers were increasingly inferior in numbers and qualifications since the middle of the 19th century, which was primarily due to the lack of demand for highly trained workers by the British industry. Until recently, what can now be considered that the technical engineers were largely ill-educated and practised mostly in engineering colleges and school?

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In comparison to degrees or diplomas granted to Continental European or American engineers after full-time study, the vast majority of best certificate programs like aerospace engineering like University of Cambridge and Imperial College London are there in the UK. There are other reputed engineering institutions in the UK, which were opened due to the industrial revolution (Allen, 2017). This report tried to introspect for how COVID 19 has created standstill and shaped new ways of Engineering teaching in the universities of the United Kingdom and also examined the future of Engineering teaching in UK universities. 1.2. Overview of Engineering History in the UK Europe inspired invention and discovery by the efforts of Britain through the technological revolution in the 17th century. Experiments by organisations such as the Royal Society which were established in 1660 were deemed essential to innovation. From its mediaeval beginnings, the English patent scheme grew into a system of accepted intellectual property, promoting innovation and encouraging the late 18th-century industrial revolution (Daemmrich, 2017). Innovation in the United Kingdom in the 19th century resulted in disruptive manufacturing reforms, the emergence of factory networks and expansion in rail and steam transport expanding across the globe. The rate of invention calculated by registered patents in Britain slowed down over other leading economies in the 20th century. Before the inspection by the Civil in 1896 and a measure was taken by Mechanical and Electrical departments in 1913, no membership or course review was possible. It was projected that at the end of the 19th century, Germany had about 30 000 academic engineers, with several engineering schools ranging from three to five times higher, giving high investment in research and building a strong technical human resource. That was greater than the members registered in the Ministry of Labor’s Professional and Science Registry after the Second World War (Crim, 2018). In certain cases, Aero Space Engineering is an Endeavour that is commonly known but probably a bit neglected. But this is somewhat wrong as it is the engineering accomplishments in many respects, which reflect some of UK history’s greatest achievements. Therefore, the history of engineering begins with its oldest forms and the etymology of the term, which itself is looked at more closely in this report. Figure 1: Education Situation in the United Kingdom (Source: Magaziner, 2016) 1.3. The promotion of Engineering teaching through industrialists in the UK The Organisations, most of whose founders were business executives, saw the need for further education for full time. They tended to share their opinion that their apprenticeship and industrial based preparation was the right format needed for a trained engineer except for the Civil applicants, whose members comprise a significant number of self-employed consultants (Pilcher et al., 2017). The presidential address to the civilian society in 1866, relating to the highest degree of mechanical training offered in France and Germany but pleasing at the practical benefit that British engineers had, was the first documentation of participation of engineering aspirants in technical institutions (Refer figure 1). Later, a committee emphasised the function of university or college research, meaning that much of it would be in full-time schooling. In this regard, Dr R. Mullineux Walmsley’s 1904 long paper explained the American methods of education of engineers and worked on the main requirements to get technical expertise at colleges (Albu, 2016). It initiated a debate marked by the lack of technological contribution and by the complacency of teachers from technical colleges. 1.4. Mechanical Engineering Education evolution in the UK In 1901 the first reference to education for the mechanically generated procedures was started by William H. Maw, who was an American editor of the technical newspaper became a continuing champion of the academic required for engineering courses. It was started mainly in the industrial field. Following was a research publication from W. E. Dalby, which were given in 1903 and provided the references to this subject, which never took place until 1939 (Albu, 2016). At that time, there were only four universities in England, Wales and Scotland until almost the end of the century. Cambridge, London and the Scottish universities had established engineering institutions, but their graduates were very few. The volume and level of engineering education on the continent and in the United States improved dramatically during this period. 1.5 Technischen Hochschulen in the UK In 1889 Emperor Wilhelm II granted the privilege to award the designation of Engineer and a reputed engineering doctorate to the Technical Colleges. They were established at the start of the 19th century. By 1902, 13 educational institutes were under operation and almost 11,000 diploma students had already enrolled in the Technische Hochschulen by 1909 (Albu, 2016). Although the French were already establishing their method of higher education at the Grandes Ecoles, higher education in engineering was then held in various United Kingdom universities and followed an innovation trend in England. Also, engineering courses were conducted in most of the colleges and their figures were expanded in compliance with the Land Grant Act of 1862 in the US (Geiger, 2017). It led to the establishment of excellent aerospace engineering colleges and universities such as Massachusetts and Stanford University in the USA. At the beginner of the new century, civic universities developed in Britain, which centred primarily on colleges formed by radical local industrialists to endow with industry and trade based applied and industry-based education. 1.6. Present situation and future A research overview of the impact on English higher education students during the fall of 2020 of a coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The pandemic of coronavirus (COVID-19) and the various steps taken to slow its dissemination have had an important impact on the everyday lifestyle and mental good of the general population, but many Engineering university students find themselves in a peculiar position, maybe being isolated from those in their communities. A variety of analysis was conducted in this research report, which is being undertaken on the specific effect of the pandemic on students’ well-being and attitudes, including the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and also through the Engineering Student Covid Insights Survey (SCIS) (Blake et al., 2021). During the period from October to December, they obtained details in three pilots. This report tried to find the questions for the survey, which have grown over time to illustrate modifications of the coronavirus constraints and to respond to new activities and recommendations for Engineering students in preparation for the winter session break. 2. Literature Review 2.1. Engineering: Origin and implementation of term From ancient times, engineering as a philosophy or a corporation term existed and our current conception of the term can be extended through several different examples of the ancient world. They are the use of mechanical solutions and knowledge to create structures or to solve problems. The usage and application, as the invention and various uses of the rotor, involve the levers and rollers to provide the earliest modes of engineering. The word engineering, however, only dates back to 1325 and the oldest example of the term was just someone who works a motor and was termed as an engine-er (Dixit, Hazarika and Davim, 2017). They used to build a military weapon, a trebuchet or a siege-engine or perhaps a catapult was used in that connection. 2.2. Organised and Formal development of UK Engineering Technology extended from the initially limited meaning as an area of initiative and accomplishment. In comparison, architecture has been a field in which the UK dominated the world and accomplished remarkable milestones by the 19th century and the Victorian period in particular. Thus, it was during the 19th century that the discipline was better organised and professionalised due to the increasing importance of Aero Space Engineering in the United Kingdom. It was called the institution of civil engineers and was established in 1818 by the earliest official and competent engineering association (Chance et al., 2019). Several other related colleges and organisations in the UK were rapidly pursued and both targeted at professionalising engineering further and at creating and sustaining high expectations. This is why many of the UK’s best engineers have succeeded in many respects. 2.3. The Engineering Gems of UK Even a short engineering history in the UK will not be complete without naming at least a couple of the best-known names in the region. There are mainly three major engineers to concentrate upon, which are Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Barnes Wallis and Robert Stephenson. Brunel worked in 1806 and is probably the best-known historical engineer of the United Kingdom (Wilson, n.d.). The engineer led projects such as the establishment of the Great Western Railway (GW) and building of the Clifton suspension bridge at his height in the early Queen Victorian period. Robert Stephenson was the son of George, who was involved at about the same time as Brunel and was described as the father of the railways. However, it is Robert who, due primarily recognised for his work based on track construction and locomotive architecture, has rightly been one of the greatest engineers of all times. Unlike our other engineering couple, Barnes Wallis is better known for an engineering success during the 20th and not the 19th century. This genius mind made the world-famous bouncing bombs during WW II and inspired the Hollywood film The Dambusters to smash the tactically important Ruhr dams. 3.1. STEM education policy and the impacts of COVID-19 on engineering education in the UK A group of leaders from colleges, continued education, university and the industry addressed the effect of COVID-19 on engineering preparation and skills in this specific topic of the weeklies STEM education policy webinar series. Students can wonder whether this crisis could be used to learn useful lessons. The COVID-19 crisis will have significant consequences on Engineering education, their industry expertise and the potential diversity of the engineering profession (Akkermans, Richardson and Kraimer, 2020). Since March most students have not been able to attend school and will not come back until September, with the new academic year. Teachers are agile in supplying their students with instructional support and assistance. However, it was more difficult to meet the technical and applied knowledge for many students, particularly from deprived backgrounds. Many apprenticeships in architecture and developments have been either completely retained or discontinued, with apprentices being furlough or redundant. Those on low-level apprentices, who are far more likely to come from disadvantaged families, will experience overwhelmingly through these impacts. Poverty rates in black, Asian and minority ethnic groups (BAME) are two times higher than in the White communities ( et al., 2020). Student BAME is more likely than their white peers to earn unfavourable GCSE and respected ‘A’ ratings. Both obstacles will combine to expand the paths of education and reduce access to engineering fields like aerospace engineering, mechanical and information technology, at a time when young and diverse engineers are required to help and restore the economy. References Akkermans, J., Richardson, J. and Kraimer, M., 2020. The Covid-19 crisis as a career shock: Implications for careers and vocational behavior. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc7205633/ Albu, A., 2016. a Historical Perspective. Technical Innovation and British Economic Performance, p.67. Aldridge, R.W., Lewer, D., Katikireddi, S.V., Mathur, R., Pathak, N., Burns, R., Fragaszy, E.B., Johnson, A.M., Devakumar, D., Abubakar, I. and Hayward, A., 2020. Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups in England are at increased risk of death from COVID-19: indirect standardisation of NHS mortality data. Wellcome open research, 5. Allen, R.C., 2017. The industrial revolution: a very short introduction (Vol. 509). Oxford University Press. [ONLINE] Available at: https://delong.typepad.com/files/allen-geh.pdf#page=172 Blake, H., Knight, H., Jia, R., Corner, J., Morling, J.R., Denning, C., Ball, J.K., Bolton, K., Figeuredo, G., Morris, D. and Tighe, P., 2021. Students’ Views Towards SARS-CoV-2 Mass Asymptomatic Testing, Social Distancing and Self-Isolation in a University Setting during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Study. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202101.0399/download/final_file Chance, S., Direito, I., Lawlor, R., Creswell-Maynard, K., Prichard, J., Tyler, N. and Mitchell, J., 2019, July. Global Responsibility in Civil Engineering Practice in the UK: A Report of Work in Progress. In Proceedings of the 8th Research in Engineering Education Symposium (REES 2019) (Vol. 8, pp. 198-207). South African Society for Engineering Education (SASEE). Crim, B.E., 2018. Our Germans: Project Paperclip and the national security state. JHU Press. [ONLINE] Available at: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=5JZADwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=more+germany+engineers+than+Ministry+of+Labor%27s+Professional+and+Science+Registry+after+the+Second+World+War&ots=hIExIlqC9Z&sig=ngh6n5-ybTuoBYDa2fiRs4Ffa_E Daemmrich, A., 2017. Invention, innovation systems, and the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Technology & Innovation, 18(4), pp.257-265. Dixit, U.S., Hazarika, M. and Davim, J.P., 2017. A brief history of mechanical engineering. Switzerland: Springer. [ONLINE] Available at: http://internal.khntusg.com.ua/fulltext/Springer/2017_Book_ABriefHistoryOfMechanicalEngin(%D0%9A%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F%20%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%8F%20%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%88%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F).pdf Geiger, R.L. ed., 2017. The land-grant colleges and the reshaping of American higher education. Routledge. [ONLINE] Available at: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qzIrDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Land+Grant+Act+of+1862+in+the+US,+notwithstanding+the+establishment+of+excellent+educational+institutions+&ots=W_a5h7of9x&sig=A_pnm3IoUuBgyX9miwY7aVAYl-I Magaziner, J., 2016. Education in the U.K. [Online] Available at: https://wenr.wes.org/2016/02/education-in-the-u-k [Accessed 15 February 2021]. Pilcher, N., Forster, A., Tennant, S., Murray, M. and Craig, N., 2017. Problematising the ‘Career Academic’in UK construction and engineering education: does the system want what the system gets?. European Journal of Engineering Education, 42(6), pp.1477-1495. Wilson, T.R., Conserving the significance of a changing modern transport service: the effect of Crossrail on Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s Great Western Railway. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.academia.edu/download/56818654/Wilson2018ConservingSignificance.pdf

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