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The Adult Offender.

1. What has been the primary factor in the growth in the number of individuals under correctional supervision over the past twenty years? The primary factor in the growth of individuals under correctional supervision in the past twenty years has been due to tougher laws, correctional supervision also has a broader scope of people under supervision and there are more offenders that are sentenced with drug and property offences. Correctional supervision also includes people out on bond, probation and parole.

2. Compare the increase in females versus males in terms of the number under correctional supervision.

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There has been a dramatic increase in the number of females under supervision on 1999, 21% were on probation and 11% in local jails, 6% in prision and 12% on parole. By 2010 the female population was 6.8%. The annual growth of the female population was 2.4% compared to 1.7% of male population. From 2000 to 2010 the rate of males increased 15% whereas the number of females increased 23%.

3. What does William Wilbanks say about the presence of racism in the criminal justice system and what do most researchers believe is the reason for the disproportionate number of minorities under correctional supervision?

William Wilbanks states that the “perception of the criminal justice system as racist is a myth”. Most researchers believe that disproportion results from the fact that minorities are disproportionately involved in crime as both the perpetrators and victims.

4. How has the age of offenders changed?.
The age of offenders have changed due to longer prison sentences and the bell shaped curve of prison population is leveling out. Most prisoners were age 30 to 35 with very few old or young offender. The contributing factors is that America’s population is aging and inmates are serving longer sentences.

5. What percentage of people arrested for violent felonies are male?
The percentage of males arrested for violent felonies are 80.5%.

6. What is the “general population” within a prison?
The general population is an inmate in prison that does not have any specific type of designation as a special type of offender.

7. What is the general overall goal of a prison classification system?
The overall goal of a prison classification system is to maintain homogeneneity of inmates by risk of violence and escape and therefore places in prisons that are physically designed to meet theses risks.

8. Why are women now sentenced similarly to male offenders?
Women are now sentenced similar to males because of sentencing guidelines and mandatory sentencing. Judges now have less discretion when sentencing.

9. How does the recidivism rate for women offenders compare to that for men?
Females had less recidivism rates than the rates of men within three years after release 17.3% returned to prison for a new offense compared to 26.2% of males. and 39.4% returned without a new offense competed to 53% of males.

10. What percentage of the prison population is female? 6.8% of the prison population is female.

11. List some of the special problems faced by female inmates.
Healthcare, vocational training and work opportunity, pentagonal of sexual abuse from staff, alcohol and drug use and problems relating to their children.

12. What programs do prisons have to deal with the parenting needs of female prisoners?
They have child visitation, parent education, and other parenting programs.

13. How do female inmate classification systems differ from those for men?
The older classification system was over classifing women. Most of the time when it is a violent offense the woman is an accomplice to the male and did not handle and weapon so this was looked at as well as women having children
being classified as a higher escape risk.

14. Describe the impact that the case of Barefield v. Leach has had on the operation of female prisons
The case decided that a disparity of programs for female inmates could not be justified because the smaller number of female inmates made it more costly to provide program parity.

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