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MK7227 Postgraduate Dissertation Student Number: Essay Paper Assistance

MK7227 Postgraduate Dissertation

MK7227 Postgraduate Dissertation Student Number: U0928805 Comments Max Mark Actual Mark Introduction Identification of a valid topic, research question and objectives framed to Masters Level standard with academic rationale developed, clear industry contextualisation of the research topic Supervisor Comments: 10% Introduction Identification of a valid topic, research question and objectives framed to Masters Level standard with academic rationale developed, clear industry contextualisation of the research topic 2nd marker Comments: 10% Critical Literature Review Depth and breadth of literature search, engagement with seminal authors and papers, evidence of a critical approach toward the scholarly literature Supervisor Comments: 25% Critical Literature Review Depth and breadth of literature search, engagement with seminal authors and papers, evidence of a critical approach toward the scholarly literature 2nd marker Comments: 25% Research Methodology Evaluation of research philosophies and perspectives. Justification of methodological approach, sampling strategy, data analysis and reliability and validity measures as applicable Supervisor Comments: 15% Research Methodology Evaluation of research philosophies and perspectives.

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Justification of methodological approach, sampling strategy, data analysis and reliability and validity measures as applicable 2nd marker Comments: 15% Data Analysis and Interpretation Evidence of rigor in data analysis and interpretation procedures, identification of key patterns and themes in the research data, integration of academic theory into explanation of findings Supervisor Comments: 35% Data Analysis and Interpretation Evidence of rigor in data analysis and interpretation procedures, identification of key patterns and themes in the research data, integration of academic theory into explanation of findings 2nd marker Comments: 35% Conclusions and Recommendations Research question and objectives addressed with implications to theoretical and managerial concepts considered. Recommendations provided for theory, practice and future research Supervisor Comments: 10% Conclusions and Recommendations Research question and objectives addressed with implications to theoretical and managerial concepts considered. Recommendations provided for theory, practice and future research 2nd marker Comments: 10% Organisation, presentation and references. Well structured and ordered dissertation with correct use of grammar and syntax. In-text citation and bibliography conforming to Cite Them Right  Supervisor Comments: 5% Organisation, presentation and references. Well structured and ordered dissertation with correct use of grammar and syntax. In-text citation and bibliography conforming to Cite Them Right  2nd marker Comments: 5% Total First Marker Total 100% Total Second Marker Total 100% Supervisor General Comments: Supervisor General Comments: Agreed Mark: Agreed Mark: 2nd Marker General Comments: 2nd Marker General Comments: Agreed Mark: Agreed Mark: Supervisor s Name: .. Signature: 2nd Marker s Name: . Signature: [Insert Dissertation Title Here] A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the School of Business and Law, University of East London for the degree of [Insert Full Programme Title Here] [Insert Month and Year here] [Insert Word Count here] I declare that no material contained in the thesis has been used in any other submission for an academic award Student Number:_________0928805______________ Date:___16/05/2016__________________ Dissertation Deposit Agreement Libraries and Learning Services at UEL is compiling a collection of dissertations identified by academic staff as being of high quality. These dissertations will be included on ROAR the UEL Institutional Repository as examples for other students following the same courses in the future, and as a showcase of the best student work produced at UEL. This Agreement details the permission we seek from you as the author to make your dissertation available. It allows UEL to add it to ROAR and make it available to others. You can choose whether you only want the dissertation seen by other students and staff at UEL ( Closed Access ) or by everyone worldwide ( Open Access ). I DECLARE AS FOLLOWS: That I am the author and owner of the copyright in the Work and grant the University of East London a licence to make available the Work in digitised format through the Institutional Repository for the purposes of non-commercial research, private study, criticism, review and news reporting, illustration for teaching, and/or other educational purposes in electronic or print form That if my dissertation does include any substantial subsidiary material owned by third-party copyright holders, I have sought and obtained permission to include it in any version of my Work available in digital format via a stand-alone device or a communications network and that this permission encompasses the rights that I have granted to the University of East London. That I grant a non-exclusive licence to the University of East London and the user of the Work through this agreement. I retain all rights in the Work including my moral right to be identified as the author. That I agree for a relevant academic to nominate my Work for adding to ROAR if it meets their criteria for inclusion, but understand that only a few dissertations are selected. That if the repository administrators encounter problems with any digital file I supply, the administrators may change the format of the file. I also agree that the Institutional Repository administrators may, without changing content, migrate the Work to any medium or format for the purpose of future preservation and accessibility. That I have exercised reasonable care to ensure that the Work is original, and does not to the best of my knowledge overstep any UK law, encroach any third party s copyright or other Intellectual Property Right, or contain any confidential material. That I understand that the University of East London does not have any obligation to take legal action on behalf of myself, or other rights holders, in the event of infringement of intellectual property rights, breach of contract or of any other right, in the Work. I FURTHER DECLARE: That I can choose to declare my Work Open Access , available to anyone worldwide using ROAR without barriers and that files will also be available to automated agents, and may be searched and copied by text mining and plagiarism detection software. That if I do not choose the Open Access option, the Work will only be available for use by accredited UEL staff and students for a limited period of time. /cont Dissertation Details Field Name Details to complete Title of thesis Full title, including any subtitle Evaluation of the Private & Private Partnership and its Benefit on the UK Healthcare Sector. Supervisor(s)/advisor Separate the surname (family name) from the forenames, given names or initials with a comma, e.g. Smith, Andrew J. Mr Ejike Udeogu, Adrian Haberberg Author Affiliation Name of school where you were based UNIVERSITY OF EAST LONDON Qualification name E.g. MA, MSc, MRes, PGDip MSc Course Title The title of the course e.g. International Business Management Date of Dissertation Date submitted in format: YYYY-MM 2016 17th May, Does your dissertation contain primary research data? (If the answer to this question is yes, please make sure to include your Research Ethics application as an appendices to your dissertation) Yes No Do you want to make the dissertation Open Access (on the public web) or Closed Access (for UEL users only)? Open Closed By returning this form electronically from a recognized UEL email address or UEL network system, I grant UEL the deposit agreement detailed above. I understand inclusion on and removal from ROAR is at UEL s discretion. Student Number: ..U0928805 . Date: .16/05/2016 .. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This dissertation was made possible by the kind help of various individuals in my life to whom I express my sincere appreciation. Firstly, I owe much gratitude to the staff and Professors of the International Business Management for the help and mentoring given to me all through my Master s degree program. I also like to extend my thanks to my supervisor Ejike Udeogu and my Lecturer Adrian Haberberg for their help and direction they gave me throughout till completion of this dessertation. I will like to thank my wife Jodie Harris and family, Ovo Ugbehe, Okeoghene Ugbehe, Efemena Ugbehe and my classmates and companions. To all, I say thank you for the prayer, support, inspirational statements with which this dissertation has been a success Research Dissertation Evaluation of THE PUBLIC & PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS BENEFITS in the u. health care sector By OGHENEKOME UGBEHE Word Count: 15740 Abstract Public private partnership has proven to be a viable technique for developing infrastructural projects in the NHS seen as this partnership combines productivity expertise and innovation of the private sector as well as risk distribution between both the private and public sector. The most attractive trait which makes the PPP model very attractive is the financial option that it provides creating a substitute avenue for capital needed for NHS projects. UK is a pioneer of public private relationships with 22 years experience, over 130 healthcare PPP projects, and 12 million capital value with countries like Canada, Ireland, Portugal, Australia, Japan, and Sweden developing their own PPP models using UK expertise. In spite of the fact that this model of Partnership has been by and by over various decades, there is still insufficient exploration has been done to emphasize its advantages and need. To appreciate the effectiveness this model of partnership and its effectiveness this thesis would extend existing literature in examining the benefits risks, challenges and success the indicator of private public partnership with evaluations to alternative methods also included. The findings in this dissertation reveals that most NHS personnel are aware of how significant the positive impacts of PPP are to the health sector however they are unable to determine how best to achieve maximum success. Researcher will also identify the factors needed for a successful PPP EG. Risk allocation, good partnering plan for viable implementation of projects in the health sector Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.. 10 Abstract. 12 Chapter 1: Introduction of the Research.. 17 1.1 Introduction.. 17 1.2 Background.. 17 1.3. HISTORY OF PPP IN THE UK.. 18 1.4 Statement of the Problem 19 1.5 Research objectives. 20 1.6. Scope. 20 1.7 Research Methodology. 20 1.8 Significance of the Study. 20 1.9 Chapter Summary. 22 Chapter 2: Literature Review.. 23 2.1 Introduction.. 23 2.2 PRIVATE VS PUBLIC HEALTH CARE FUNDING.. 24 2.3. Private Healthcare. 25 2.4. Arguments for Private Healthcare. 26 2.5. Argument against Private Healthcare. 27 2.6. Public Healthcare. 28 2.7. Argument for Public healthcare. 28 2.8. Argument against Public healthcare. 29 2.9. PPP TO THE RESCUE?. 30 2.9.1 Current State of NHS health Sector. 30 2.9.2 ARGUMENTS/ DEBATE ON PPP. 35 2.9.3 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIVATISATION AND PPPS. 36 2.9.4 PPP SUPPLY METHODS. 38 2.9.5 CLASSIFICATION OF PPP. 38 Supply and management contract: 38 Turnkey: 38 Affermage/Lease. 39 Concessions: 39 Private Ownership of Assets and PFI type: 39 2.9.6 Literature Review.. 39 2.10 Chapter Summary. 39 Chapter 3: Research Methodology. 40 3.1 Introduction.. 40 3.2 Use of Survey. 40 3.2.1 Survey Question.. 41 3.3 Data collection and data analysis. 42 3.4 Data collection methods. 42 3.5.. 43Validity and reliability of quantitative research.. 43 3.6 Data Analysis Tool 43 3.7 Conclusion of Methodology. 44 Chapter 4: Research Analysis and Findings. 45 4.1 Introduction.. 45 4.2 Analysis. 45 4.3 Research Approach.. 49 4.4 Primary Factors. 49 Death Rate. 50 CANCER SURVIVAL RATE.. 51 4.5 Analysis of Different Case Studies. 55 4.6 Emerging PPP Research Themes. 59 4.6.1 PPP Outcomes. 59 4.6.2 The Policy of PPP. 59 4.6.3 The Practice of PPPs. 60 4.7 Conclusion of Analysis and Findings. 60 Chapter 6: Conclusion for the Research.. 62 6.1 Conclusion.. 62 6.2 Synthesis and Implications. 65 6.3 Managerial and policy implications. 66 6.4 Limitations and further research.. 67 Bibliography. 68 Acronyms ADSCR Annual Debt Service Coverage Ratio BOO Build-Own-Operate BOT Build-Operate-Transfer BTO Build-Transfer-Operate BLT Build-Lease-Transfer BROT Build-Rehabilitate-Operate-Transfer CAPM Capital Assets Pricing Model COD Commercial Operation Date DBFO Design-Build-Finance-Operate DBO Design-Build-Operate DCM Design-Construction- Maintenance EOI Expressions of Interest EPC Engineering, Procurement and Construction ECA Export Credit Agency ICD Inland Container Depot IRR Internal Rate of Return LOA Letter of Acceptance LOI Letter of Intent MCA Model Concession Agreement MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (an affiliate of the World Bank) MOU Memorandum of Understanding NPV Net Present Value O&M Operation and Maintenance PFI Private Finance Initiative PLCR Project Life Coverage Ratio PPI Private Participation in Infrastructure PPP Public-Private Partnership PSC Public Sector Comparator PSP Private Sector Participation PSO Public Service Obligation RFP Request for Proposal ROE Return on Equity SPV Special Purpose/Project Vehicle TOR Terms of Reference VAT Value Added Tax Evaluation of Private and Public Partnership and its impact on health care sector UK? Chapter 1: Introduction of the Research 1.1 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to provide background of the research. Discussing the problem statement, rationale behind conducting the research, describing research aims and objectives are followed by the research structure in this chapter. The study focuses on comprehensive review of Private Public partnership (PPP) by asking the following questions: Since the arrival of PPP, What are the main indicators that best reveal both the beneficial impacts of PPP on the heath sector? Through this study, the researcher is able to analyze PPP activities in the UK rather than focusing on broad overview of PPPs. We have focused on these questions in the research by developing framework based on research analysis. Beside this the study will highlight wider management literature/ information in healthcare context, while, considering broader range of ideas and traditions. 1.2 Background In European countries there is increased reliance on private sector and its involvement for development and financing the public infrastructure and services. It is believed that such partnership is important to improve diversity of provision of healthcare services ie. Partnership to improve the quality infrastructure and services at optimal cost while reducing the risk. PPP is defined as a simple and long term contract between private and government party in order to provide public assets and services through the management of private company (Ashley, et al., 2008). World Bank Institute (2012:11) has defined PPP as: A long-term contract between a private party and a government agency, for providing a public asset or service, in which the private party bears significant risk and management responsibility  Contrary to public opinion, the beginnings of public private partnership (PPP) can be followed to the Labor administration of the late 1970s. At the time, the US was trying different things with private organization as a method for Regenerating depressed groups. Then in 1978, a choice was made to copy US approach and arrangements were made to set in movement the formation of similar approach in the UK (O Brien, 1997). 1.3. HISTORY OF PPP IN THE UK Since then there is variation towards separation of ownership and risk bearing between public and private actors. There were almost $4 billion PPP contracts in health sector in 2010 alone demonstrating mixed empirical evidences however, PPP has proven to be an effective way to deploy a vast range of public sector infrastructure as well as effective service delivery. In UK, it was researched that there are more than 600 PPPs formed under Private Financing Initiatives (PFIs) in order to build over $100 bullion hospitals, schools, roads and other infrastructures. This also indicates increase in Europe/ UK relationship in order to provide effective infrastructure and management services (Huver R M E, 2006). In 1991, UK government introduced public private partnerships followed by First contract signed to design, build, and finance and operate a 1,000-bed hospital in Norwich in 1996. In 2001, Norwich hospital was completed on budget and 5 months ahead of schedule followed by The largest single PPP hospital contract in the UK signed for the œ1.1 billion for the St Bartholomew s and Royal London project in 2006.6 years later more than 130 healthcare related PPP plans finalized, in progress or affirmed subsequent to 2001 and after that in 2016 there been Planned completion of the St Bartholomew s and Royal London project (, 2013). There has been an increased popularity of PPPs and this has been observed in different developed and developing economies as PPP phenomenon provides an effective means to attract huge practitioners. Public private partnership is also effective as it improves the job situations, educational development and innovation toward health infrastructure development (Axel Kaehne, 2013). This study will help elucidate the popularity and reasons to deploy PPP, and empirical research is required to explore the evidence gaps. In this research the researcher is able to determine the effectiveness of public private partnership and the role it has played explaining whether it s been positive or detrimental to healthcare services. The researcher also wants to determine the benefits and challenges PPP undergoes. 1.4 Statement of the Problem PPP is considered a new platform in developing countries. Although, the government are willing to take different steps in order to promote PPP however, lack of capacity and resources in public sector seem to be the major issue behind implementing PPP projects effectively (Wachter, 2010). There are very few countries, with developed institutional arrangements and manuals in support of PPP development therefore there is the need to recognize and designate all risk components connected with PPP projects. When there is absence of these established arrangements, public officials have to face project development and implementations in order to deal misunderstandings related to PPPs (Bird & Lisa, 2001) there are numerous public-private organizations, past histories and encounters to highlight components basic to the accomplishment of future tasks. Be that as it may, no extensive study exists to consider and measure the majority of the different factors prompting a viable PPP project execution. As a result there remain conflicting opinions on the best administration that suits the UK health sector best with a lot of individuals insinuating that the PPP has been the reason for the deal of issues currently faced by the NHS and others maintain that the benefits of this model to NHS, and even the economy Growth makes it a more viable administration. Research is limited in academic comments and literature review is also fragmented leaving the private and public sectors to handle projects that are costly to both parties. More so, a need for a generally appropriate assessment procedure to examine adequacy of public private ventures. 1.5 Research objectives The aim of this research is to determine the impact of PPP on improvement for health care sector. Here are the major research objectives: To determine the impact PPP has had on service health care sector since its adoption in the UK Healthcare Sector. To research the best conditions under which PPP is generally suitable. To determine the advantages, success and challenges faced by PPP for health care sector and community development. 1.6. Scope The scope of this dissertation is limited to the effectiveness of the PPP model in NHS infrastructure ventures. The result of this survey will not be compared to preexistent approaches adopted by NHS Prior to the advent of PPP due to time restriction and this research will focus on factors necessary to guarantee a fruitful and viable project, and highlight also the benefits, detriments and difficulties of PPP projects 1.7 Research Methodology This research is focused secondary research in order to collect data. Primary data is the data collected by the researcher in detail on the topic for the first time. For this purpose the researcher uses existing research data and result to make conclusions on findings. Interview approach would have been more effective because the researcher would be able to collect in-depth data about the topic but due to time constraint researcher has relied on single case study because it will be helpful for the researcher to analyze the data in greater context. Besides this the researcher has also relied upon the secondary research where the data has been analyzed by reviewing the other authors contribution in this context. 1.8 Significance of the Study The research would be helpful in conveying satisfactory understanding on to the whole procedure of PPP and in addition look into the advantages, risks, disappointment and conditions important for a viable PPP project. Furthermore this research will help to establish the efficiency of public private partnership and how it can be improved to create a more efficient and viable heath sector by providing views of literature from of existing research. The researcher would be able to determine different underlining issues behind the financing of PPP and how successful companies achieved the efficiency implementing this relationship model. The researcher would be able to deliver effective strategies for adopting this model to the health care sector in order to aid easy compliance. This study will add to the existing literature on PPP and health care sector as this research will further highlight new methods to manage cost, quality and service in health care delivery. 1.9 Structure of the Research ú Objectives ú Research ú Background ú Methodology Literature Review Provide Conclusions and Recommendation Data Acquisition Data Interpretation and Analysis Gather Survey information from past Content Analysis Comparative Analysis Conclusion and recommendation Fig 1.1 Flow diagram of research Process 1.9 Chapter Summary From this discussion, it can be said that public private partnership is a long term contract between private and government party. In most Cases e.g. (PFI) capital venture is made by the private sector on the principle of an agreement while the government gives agreed administrations and the cost of providing service is borne wholly or partially by the government and in other scenerios the public party provides public assets/ services, while, private party has the management responsibility and remuneration is related to the performance. Although PPP is slowly been deliberated by most Government as a reasonable medium for Capital projects, people still need to be shown its Viability therefore, the examination of the PPP strategy and accentuation on its proficiency would be a very profitable tool for implementing future NHS projects. Public private partnership has also being an effective way to improve the relationships by improving innovation, technical knowledge, skills, managerial efficiency, social responsibility and local knowledge in order to improve accountability and local knowledge through health infrastructure and services. In the next chapter, the researcher has described the viewpoints of other authors in this context. Through this, the researcher would be able to develop conceptual framework for the study, Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 Introduction Over the past decade the NHS has depended intensely on private funding for its capital investment need and this is on the grounds that the of PFI which includes the private sector would be responsible for financing , construction and support of administrations as a rule on a 30 year contract. But currently the situation in the hospitals is complex as it is difficult to perform the tasks in the health care institutions by relying on government only. Research demonstrates that the NHS is already falling by international standards and it is anticipated that by 2020 the NHS would spend through œ43 billion pounds a year less than its European neighbors (guardian. 2016). Initially created by the conservative government in the early 1990s but excitedly grasped by Labor Private Finance initiative has become a well-established way of paying for new hospitals and infrastructures. Few of the successful public private partnership observed in UK includes London School of Hygiene and tropical medicine, European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Department of Public Health and Policy, Imperial College London, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London News Hospitals, the Acorn Consortium and new Alder hey Children s Hospital in Liverpool, Turks and Caicos Island hospitals developed with PFI expertise from British advisors amongst others (, 2013). The concept of public and private partnership is increased due to its scope in the market. There are many institutions in the health care sector profit based and nonprofit based that exists only for delivering free services to the country (Al-Abri & Rashid, 2007). Projects related with health care by private financing initiative PFI were completed on time as 76% of them and 79% of the projects were completed within the given budget (Borkman, et al., 2008) Fig 1.2 Private vs Public Health care funding 2.2 PRIVATE VS PUBLIC HEALTH CARE FUNDING Fig 1.3 Healthcare Around the world 2.3. Private Healthcare A Good case study to research when we think Private Healthcare is the United States healthcare system. The US has more than half if its healthcare funded by private sources. With private health infrastructure available through employer, government or private schemes. The outcomes of the services can be measured in health care sector in order to find out the influence of private and public sector partnership (Kaehne & Catherall, 2013). In the US 15.3% of its population which is equivalent to $5.7 million people do not have health insurance and has its federal government operating as its highest insurer adopting two main schemes Medicaid; which is a joint funded federal state program for people who don t earn very much income, children , disabled etc. and secondly Medicare which is typically for people above 65 years and few younger disabled people and those with permanent kidney failure partaking in transplant or dialysis both covering about 26% of the population. In this model of healthcare, patient care is provided in public and private hospitals whom are paid by a mixture of charges, per admission and capitation (, 2016) 2.4. Arguments for Private Healthcare Freedom of choice is one of the benefits of the American health care system Doctors have the flexibility of choosing where they want to practice medicine likewise the patients have same flexibility of choosing whatever doctor they want to receive care as a result of the combination of government and private insurance funds for healthcare and this in turn allows for medical care of the best value and comfort (Baribault and Cloyd, 2016) Greater Efficiency and quality of service: Private firms are motivated to make profit to cut expenses and keep up a decent service and this is important when trying to pull in clients. Private firm usually meet competition and this is another incentive for better quality administration. These factors tend to be missing in our government public services although it can be contended that social healthcare is not like a private business in the sense that doctors and nurses needn t bother with a profit motivating force before doing a good job. Gives more options to consumers: we are allowed to select when buying goods, why shouldn t we be allowed to choose our health services too? Help Diminish Burden on Government Spending: in a situation where more people decide to go private, less will utilize the NHS services which is not necessary a bad thing as that would mean that the government can spend less Lessen Waiting list : similarly when people decide to go private it will diminish waiting lists Government Services can turn out to be exceptionally bureaucratic and experience diseconomies of scale. Seemingly the NHS is overstaffed with excessive directors. Private health would seem a Good option to avoid these tendencies to bureaucratic in

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